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The heart is located in the chest cavity above the lungs. It pumps nutrients, oxygen, and blood to our body through rhythmic contractions. Like other muscles in the body, the heart also needs oxygen to function properly.

To meet this need, there are coronary arteries, which are nourishing vessels. Any problem that may occur in these arteries can lead to serious issues. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide.

About Cardiology Cardiology is the branch of science that studies heart and circulatory system diseases. Cardiology departments are where clinical and laboratory studies are conducted, and diagnostic and treatment methods are applied.

At the Biruni University Hospital Cardiology Department, services such as cardiology outpatient clinics, echocardiography, stress tests, rhythm and blood pressure holter monitoring, cardiac interventions (femoral-radial angiography-angioplasty-stenting), interventional treatment of peripheral vascular diseases, and implantation of pacemakers for all cardiovascular diseases are provided by cardiology doctors. Hypertension, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, congenital heart diseases in adulthood, and heart valve diseases are investigated and treated with modern facilities according to international standards; additionally, services are provided to provide enlightening information about preventive and risk factors.

Heart Vascular Diseases The term heart and vascular diseases covers a wide range of conditions. There are many diseases related to the heart and blood vessels. The most common disorders among them include:

Coronary artery disease Heart failure Heart valve diseases Arrhythmias Peripheral vascular diseases (such as carotid, leg, kidney arteries) Adult congenital heart diseases (ASD, VSD, PDA) Hypertension Pericardial diseases Among these diseases, the most important ones are heart attack resulting from coronary artery disease and heart failure that can occur due to various reasons. A heart attack occurs when there is a blockage in the coronary arteries due to the accumulation of blood or fat, leading to inadequate blood flow to the affected area and causing permanent damage to a portion of the heart muscles due to lack of oxygen.

Heart failure, on the other hand, is the inability of the heart to perform its most important function, pumping blood, due to its weakening. Damage following a heart attack, heart valve diseases, congenital heart diseases, increased blood pressure, and viral infections lead to weakening of the heart muscle, causing heart failure.

Diagnosis Methods in Heart Diseases ECG (Electrocardiography) It involves recording the electrical activity occurring in the heart to examine the function of the heart muscle and neural conduction system. It is particularly used in the diagnosis of coronary artery blockage and arrhythmias.

Stress Test The stress test can be applied in two ways.

Exercise ECG test:

During the exercise ECG test, which is called a stress test, the patient suspected of having coronary artery stenosis walks on a treadmill at a fast pace while continuous electrocardiography of the heart is recorded.

Stress Echocardiography (Exercise or Pharmacological):

In some special cases, echocardiographic examination of the heart is performed just before and immediately after the stress test, increasing the accuracy of diagnosing heart disease compared to a normal stress test.

Echocardiography and Color Doppler Echocardiography (ECHO) is the technique of converting live images of the human heart, including its structure, the diameters of its cavities, the working capacity of the heart muscle, and especially the structure and functions of heart valves, using sound wave method. No preparation or fasting is required for this test, and the entire test can be completed in a short time. Additionally, there is another imaging method called transesophageal echocardiography performed endoscopically. This method requires fasting and preparation in advance.

Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Angiography The exact observation of the heart’s structure, the pressure values in the heart chambers and major blood vessels, the stenosis and insufficiency of heart valves, and especially the presence of narrowing or blockage in heart vessels is possible through cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography. It is performed with the help of a catheter advanced from the groin or arm artery under local anesthesia to reach the heart. During cardiac catheterization, pressures inside the heart are measured, and at the same time, the contraction function of the left heart chamber is examined by giving “contrast substance” to the left heart cavity.

Holter Monitor (Heart Rhythm or Blood Pressure Holter) The monitoring and recording of heart rhythm for 24 hours are carried out with a device called a holter. This device enables the diagnosis of cardiac rhythm disorders.

Blood pressure holter records the fluctuations in blood pressure shown during the day under real-life conditions and the blood pressure values during sleep.

Electrophysiological Study It is the most definitive diagnostic method for rhythm disorders occurring in the heart. This procedure, performed by cardiologists, locates the areas causing rhythm disorders by advancing a special catheter under local anesthesia from the groin vein to the heart.

Cardiac MRI Cardiac MRI is an imaging technique that easily and harmlessly reveals the structure of the heart sac, heart chambers and valves, heart muscle, and major arteries leaving the heart, and some heart diseases (narrowing, enlargement, calcification). Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy: In investigating whether there is any blockage or narrowing in the vessels that feed the heart, this method is more sensitive than the stress test. The blood flow (or nutrition) of the heart muscle is examined using a radioactive substance called Thallium given intravenously during rest and exercise.

Treatment There are three types of treatment methods for heart diseases.

Medical Interventional Surgical MEDICAL TREATMENT (DRUG TREATMENT):

There are many medications available medically, and new drugs are constantly being developed. These drugs prescribed by cardiologists provide significant benefits in the treatment of some heart diseases.

Interventional Cardiology Interventional cardiology has shown rapid developments in recent years. With newly developed techniques and materials, many diseases can be treated in the angiography laboratory. These include:

Angioplasty-Stenting Technique: Angioplasty-stenting technique used in the treatment of vascular occlusion. In balloon angioplasty-stent procedures, a thin-walled but pressure-resistant balloon catheter is placed in the narrowed area inside the coronary artery and inflated. The plaque consisting of fat, calcium, and various structures that narrows the artery is partially crushed and cracked. Today, there are three types of stents used: drug-eluting, drug-coated, and completely absorbable. These angioplasty-stenting procedures are also performed on non-cardiac vessels such as carotid (carotid artery), kidney, leg vessels.

Cardiac Pacemakers: Electronic devices implanted in the body to correct rhythm and conduction system disorders of the heart. Also, they are widely used today to increase the contraction of the heart muscles in heart failure.

Various interventional methods are applied in heart valve diseases.

These include:

The method of catheterizing the aortic valve known as TAVI has been developed as a new treatment method for advanced aortic valve stenosis patients due to wear and tear in old age who are in a high-risk group due to accompanying other diseases and deemed high-risk for open-heart surgery.

Mitral balloon valvuloplasty, widely used and highly effective in mit

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