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Gastroenterology Surgery

Gastrointestinal surgery” is a branch of medicine that deals with the surgical treatment of all benign and malignant diseases located in the digestive system. The department that deals with the internal diseases of this area is called “gastroenterology.” It encompasses the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. Additionally, diseases of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are included in this group.

Surgery can be used to remove organs that are part of the digestive system damaged by cancerous or non-cancerous causes. Additionally, surgery may be considered in cases of problems requiring repair, such as hernias.

DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT PROCESS IN GASTROENTEROLOGY SURGERY

In our gastrointestinal surgery unit, patients are offered the opportunity to receive treatment in line with universal standards, with a patient-centered approach by an experienced team that closely follows innovative methods and developments. In the diagnosis phase, a multidisciplinary approach may be taken, and consultations may be held with experts in gastrointestinal surgery, gastroenterology, medical oncology, radiology, pathology, and radiation oncology to make joint decisions and treat the patient. When necessary, endoscopic interventions on the gastrointestinal system and placement of endoscopic stents are performed.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM DISEASES THAT MAY REQUIRE SURGERY

COLON CANCER AND OTHER GASTROINTESTINAL CANCERS

Gastrointestinal surgery may be involved in the removal of cancerous tumors of the digestive system and the removal of a part of the digestive system along with them. For example, the surgeon may need to remove the tumor part of the pancreas, liver, or intestine along with a part of it.

DIVERTICULAR DISEASE

Diverticulum is structures known as small pouches or sacs, usually seen in the large intestine (colon). About 5% of these pouches become inflamed (diverticulitis), and 10-15% may cause bleeding. While inflammation is generally treated without surgery, a group of patients may undergo surgery due to recurrent attacks and developing complications. In such cases, a gastrointestinal surgeon may recommend removing the inflamed part of the intestine through surgery.

GALLBLADDER DISEASES

Gallbladder diseases are commonly seen due to stones. These stones may cause inflammation of the gallbladder and complications such as cholecystitis, jaundice, and pancreatitis by falling into the common bile duct. However, surgery may not be required for every gallbladder stone that has not caused complications. When necessary, a gastrointestinal surgeon may recommend laparoscopic (closed) removal of the gallbladder.

GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX (GERD), HIATAL HERNIA, AND ACHALASIA

The stomach contents are highly acidic. Disruption of the anatomical and physiological barrier structure that prevents food from entering the esophagus, and the passage of stomach contents (reflux) with bile from the duodenum into the esophagus, may cause symptoms such as chest burning and bitter taste in the mouth, as well as irritation at the tip of the esophagus. This irritation can lead to Barrett’s esophagus and, later, esophageal cancer. In cases where the hiatus opening is larger than normal, the stomach may herniate into the chest cavity (hiatal hernia). Achalasia is a disease characterized by the disruption of peristaltic movements, which allow food to progress through the digestive tract as it should, and manifests with difficulty swallowing (dysphagia). Advanced laparoscopic applications of gastrointestinal surgery can treat these conditions.

HERNIA

Hernia is the passage of organs such as the intestine from weak points caused by the inadequacy of connective tissue and muscle structure into areas where they should not be present, such as under the skin. This condition may cause swelling and pain under the skin. A gastrointestinal surgeon can repair and reinforce these weak points and generally apply mesh (patch reinforcement).

INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES (IBD) (CROHN’S, ULCERATIVE COLITIS)

The immune system, along with environmental factors, causes inflammation and damage in the gastrointestinal system in individuals with genetic susceptibility. Depending on the type, severity, and extent of the disease, medical and surgical treatment options are determined by consulting with a gastrointestinal surgeon and gastroenterologist. Among the surgical methods are bowel resection, pouch (ipaa) surgery, and temporary or permanent removal of the bowel (bag, ostomy).

RECTAL PROLAPSE

Rectal prolapse refers to the protrusion of the intestines from the anus. It is treated by bringing the hanging intestine back to its normal anatomical position and fixing it to the pelvic bone (with or without a patch) through laparoscopic or open methods. In some cases, partial removal of the large intestine may be necessary.

PANCREATIC CYSTS AND TUMORS

Cysts and tumors may develop in the pancreas for various reasons. While these cysts may be monitored in some cases, surgical intervention may be required for those carrying the risk of malignant disease. In cases where the disease is in a stage suitable for surgery, the cancerous organ is removed surgically.

LIVER CYSTIC DISEASES

Cysts such as hydatid cysts (dog cyst) and non-parasitic (structural or cancer-related) cysts, commonly encountered in our society, are removed surgically if they pose a danger or are deemed necessary by the surgeon.

SPLEEN DISEASES

The removal of the spleen may be necessary due to hematologic diseases or injuries. This procedure is called splenectomy. The spleen can be completely removed either laparoscopically or through an open method. The laparoscopic method offers less pain and a shorter hospital stay after surgery due to fewer and smaller incisions.

HEMORRHOIDS, ANAL FISSURE, ANAL FISTULA, AND PILONIDAL SINUS

Hemorrhoids, also known as piles, anal fissures, which are cracks in the anus, anal fistulas, which occur with the formation of abnormal connections in the last part of the intestine in the anal region, and hemorrhoid diseases, also known as piles, are diseases that fall within the scope of gastrointestinal surgery and can be treated with surgical operations.

Gastrointestinal Surgery Clinics are located in a few centers. Our university hospital’s Gastroenterology Clinic provides services with an experienced medical staff.

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