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Hematology

Hematology is the branch of science that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of diseases related to blood, lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. Major diseases within the scope of hematology include congenital and acquired disorders causing low and high blood levels, blood clotting and vascular occlusion disorders, blood and bone marrow cancers, immune system diseases, benign diseases and cancers causing enlargement of lymph nodes and spleen. In the diagnosis of hematological diseases, complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, biochemical tests, bone marrow biopsy and aspiration, genetic tests, and imaging techniques can be used.

In recent years, significant advancements in the field of hematology have led to great progress in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Nowadays, with individualized treatments based on the genetic characteristics of patients and diseases, significant improvement in treatment success compared to traditional treatments can be achieved. The implementation of these current and modern approaches is possible with an expert team and laboratories equipped with technology that can meet the requirements of the era.

Major Hematological Diseases:

Anemia (Anemia): Nutritional anemias such as iron, Vitamin B12, Folic acid deficiency, Thalassemia, Sickle cell anemia, Hemolytic anemia

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP), Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)

Bleeding Disorders: Hemophilias, Von Willebrand Disease, Glanzmann thrombasthenia, Bernard-Soulier Syndrome

Coagulation Disorders

Bone Marrow Failure

Acute Leukemias (Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia, Acute Myeloid Leukemia)

Chronic Leukemias (Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)

Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders (Polycythemia Vera, Essential Thrombocythemia, Myelofibrosis)

Multiple Myeloma

Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

LYMPHOMA

The lymphatic system consists of lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus gland and is one of the most important body systems for our defense system. Lymphoma (lymph cancer) is a cancer originating from lymphatic system cells and can affect all organs in our body. It is mainly divided into two groups as Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. There are many subtypes within these groups.

Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are mostly seen in advanced age. Hodgkin lymphoma is more common in two different age groups, namely 15-40 years old and over 55 years old. The risk of developing lymphoma increases with age, in individuals using immunosuppressive drugs, receiving radiotherapy (radiation therapy) for a different disease, having immune system diseases, exposed to chemical substances, and in some viral diseases.

Patients usually present with complaints such as swelling of lymph nodes in the neck, armpit, groin areas, fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss, shortness of breath, early satiety, and itching of the skin.

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that can be completely cured to a high extent. Treatment varies depending on the subtype, stage of lymphoma, age of the patient, and accompanying diseases. Chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy, and bone marrow transplantation are treatment methods that can be selected according to the characteristics of the patient and the lymphoma.

POLYCYTHEMIA

Polycythemia is defined as the detection of red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, above normal values in blood tests. These values ​​are considered normal if Hemoglobin is >16 g/dl or Hematocrit is >48% for women, and Hemoglobin is >16.5 g/dl or Hematocrit is >48.5% for men.

What are the symptoms?

In patients with polycythemia, the increase in blood cell counts leads to an increase in blood viscosity and slowing of blood flow. As a result, the risk of vascular occlusion is significantly increased. Patients usually present with symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, dizziness, headache, blurred vision, ringing in the ears, itching of the skin, excessive sweating, burning sensation in the hands and feet, easy bruising, and bleeding. Examination of patients may reveal an increase in blood pressure, enlargement of the liver and spleen.

LYMPH NODE ENLARGEMENT

Lymph nodes are organs widely found in our body and play a role in our defense system. Lymph node enlargement can be a sign of many different diseases such as infections, rheumatic diseases, and cancers. Therefore, in order to investigate the cause of lymph node enlargement, appropriate physical examination, laboratory tests, peripheral blood smear examination, and imaging techniques should be performed according to the patient’s age, medical history, medications used, size, duration, location of the lymph node enlargement, and accompanying symptoms.

If lymph node enlargement persists for 2-3 weeks without improvement with observation or antibiotic treatment, or if lymph node enlargement is accompanied by symptoms such as fever, weight loss, weakness, and night sweats, consultation with a hematologist should be sought.

CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA

Chronic myeloid leukemia is a slowly progressing form of blood cancer. Patients with CML have a large number of immature white blood cells in their blood, bone marrow, and spleen. White blood cells are responsible for our immune system.

CML receives a diagnosis in some patients due to elevation or reduction detected in routine blood tests performed for any reason. In some patients, symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, tiredness, bone pain, abdominal fullness, fever, night sweats, and weight loss may occur. The symptoms of CML generally progress over time.

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