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Pediatric Neurology

Pediatric Neurology is a medical specialization focused on the diagnosis and treatment of brain, spinal cord, nerve, and muscle disorders in children aged 0-18 years. It deals with various conditions such as neurological processes of at-risk babies with a history of premature birth or difficult delivery, genetic neurological disorders, headaches, stroke, neuromuscular disorders, febrile and non-febrile seizures, epilepsy, autism, behavioral disorders, movement disorders, and brain damage due to trauma, infection, tumors, and structural conditions. In medical terms, it is also referred to as Developmental Neurology.

Since growth and development from birth are variable and progressive processes, the evaluation of neurological disorders in children is often different from that of adult patients.

Epilepsy: Also known as seizure disorder, epilepsy is a chronic condition characterized by the occurrence of abnormal discharges outside of normal brain electrical activity.

Epilepsy is more common in children compared to adults. Many factors such as genetic, metabolic, infectious, and structural causes can lead to epilepsy. Brain damage that can occur during prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal periods can lead to epilepsy later in life. Any event that can alter the structure of the brain tissue, such as brain tumor, bleeding, or vascular damage, can disrupt electrical signals and lead to epilepsy. Treatment options include antiepileptic drugs, surgery, and dietary interventions.

Cerebral Palsy: This is a physical disability resulting from damage to the brain that occurs before, during, or shortly after birth, causing various degrees of impairment in movement and posture. Simultaneous conditions such as epilepsy, blindness, and deafness can be observed. Although the damage cannot be reversed, early diagnosis can help develop the child’s skills, and early initiation of physical therapy can be beneficial.

Delayed Neurodevelopment: It refers to the delay in completing developmental milestones such as head control, sitting, and walking according to age. Both gross and fine motor skills may be behind peers. Investigation is required to determine the cause.

Autism: Symptoms include difficulty in speech, social communication, inability to establish connections between events and people, repetitive behavior patterns, and limited eye contact.

Muscle Disorders: These conditions, usually of genetic origin, are characterized by muscle weakness observed from infancy onward. A floppy baby should be indicative of a muscle disorder.

Headaches: Headaches are common in children of all ages who can express themselves. History, physical examination, and, if necessary, imaging methods are required. Tension-type headaches, sinusitis, and migraines are common causes, but serious conditions such as tumors, abscesses, and bleeding can also be seen.

Movement Disorders: Tics are the most common movement disorder observed. There are various movement disorders caused by reasons such as chorea, dystonia, and athetosis. Damage to the brain due to infectious trauma, bleeding, etc., as well as immune, infectious, genetic, and drug-related causes can lead to these disorders.

Pediatric Neurology Diagnosis Methods:

The most important are detailed history and neurological examination. Following a thorough assessment, we can gain insights into many diseases. If necessary, blood tests, MRI, ultrasound, EEG, EMG, metabolic screenings, and genetic tests are performed.

The Pediatric Neurology Department at Biruni University Hospital provides services with its academic medical staff and advanced diagnostic methods. Following a detailed history and evaluation, a targeted treatment plan tailored to the patient’s symptoms and diagnosis is prepared.

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