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Interventional Radiology is not a surgical treatment method.

In Interventional Radiology, vascular occlusions caused by arteriosclerosis and the diseases they cause are treated. Additionally, it is used in the treatment of oncological diseases; especially in liver cancer, kidney cancer, pancreatic cancer, and lung cancer. It is effectively used in the treatment of leg varicose veins, dilation of the main artery called the aorta, known as an aortic aneurysm.

Medicine is advancing towards new technological treatments. Treatment methods performed with advanced technology in a way that minimizes the patient’s discomfort and disruption of their comfort can be achieved. In Interventional Radiology, which performs non-incisional and non-surgical procedures using high and advanced technology, special devices such as Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance, Ultrasonography, Angiography are used. In addition, treatment methods applied with very special medical materials and their accompanying materials are included.

The duration of procedures in Interventional Radiology is relatively short compared to surgical procedures. This ensures that complications and subsequent disadvantages are minimized. General anesthesia is generally not required. The longest procedure does not exceed two hours. There is no need for extensive preparation before going to Interventional Radiology. When a patient is decided to undergo Interventional Radiology treatment, it is sufficient for that patient not to eat after midnight. They should come on an empty stomach in the morning and bring any medications they are using if any.

Who Performs Interventional Radiology Procedures?

Interventional Radiology procedures are performed by radiologists and interventional radiologists who have received special training in radiology. They must be well versed in both surgical branches, internal branches, and anatomy. They should be able to keep up with new technologies, new information, and developments in medicine in a timely and complete manner.

Interventional Radiological Treatments and Diseases Applied:

Interventional Radiological procedures for cerebrovascular diseases: They are usually performed to prevent brain hemorrhage and stroke conditions. Treatment of aneurysms (ballooning of blood vessels) formed in brain vessels from within the vessel Closure of congenital vascular clusters (AVMs) within the brain by progressing through capillaries Intervention within hours in newly occurring stroke conditions to open blocked brain vessels Opening the jugular vein and cerebellar artery narrowings that hinder brain nutrition or pose a risk of stroke with the help of balloons and stents accompanied by protective filters within the vessel Treatment of disorders (skin changes, bruising, wounds, ulcers) caused by nutrition disorders in the feet of diabetic patients using the vessel Interventional Radiological Procedures for Vascular Diseases:

Uterine fibroid embolization procedures based on closing the feeding vessels of fibroids in the uterus without surgery Opening of blocked vessels in patients with walking difficulties and pain or foot ulcers due to stenosis and occlusion in leg vessels with balloons and stents Opening of vessels in patients with severely high blood pressure due to stenosis in kidney vessels using interventional radiological methods Repairing the dilation of the body’s main artery, the aorta (aortic aneurysm), with a specially sheathed stent inserted into the vessel Opening up narrowed or occluded fistulas in hemodialysis patients over time Placement of a filter in the main vein (Vena Cava) in case of venous occlusion to prevent possible lung clotting (pulmonary embolism) due to venous occlusion Treatment of varicose veins and venous insufficiency conditions due to venous insufficiency with imaging-guided laser and interventional applications within the vessel Other embolization procedures are used for bleeding or to treat abnormal tissue by blocking the feeding vessels of the patient tissue or organ with angiography from the vessel. In angiography, interventionally advancing through the vessel to block the bleeding vessel and stop bleeding in cases of stomach, intestinal bleeding, internal bleeding, lung bleeding, and organ injury Including angiography and interventional procedures for all vessels of the body except coronary arteries. Interventional Radiological Procedures for Tumor Treatment:

Direct delivery of special drugs to cancerous tissue and blocking vessels through the vessel to the tumor by reaching the region where cancer is located (chemoembolization) treatments Radioembolization treatments where radioactive substances are applied to the tumor area through the vessel to perform only radiation therapy aiming to deliver the treatment inside the tumor Drying of nerve involvement causing severe pain in cancer patients with imaging-guided interventions Special Interventional Treatments Performed by Needle Insertion Through the Skin:

They do not require long stays, and patients are usually discharged after a short observation period. Drainage of any abscesses or fluid accumulations in the abdominal or chest cavities using special devices through the skin. Treatment of kidney cysts if they cause harm to the patient by draining them through the skin (abscess drainage) Drainage through the skin (nephrostomy) or establishment of passage to the bladder (antegrade ureteral stent) in cases of kidney vessel occlusions and inability to excrete urine from the body Draining or opening the vessel inside in case of bile duct obstruction in liver, bile duct or pancreatic diseases or opening the blockage inside with balloon and stent Special treatment with special treatment to drain and dry parasitic cysts (hydatid cysts) occurring especially in the liver Biopsy procedures performed by needle insertion through the skin under imaging guidance to understand the structure of tumors, nodules, and masses anywhere in the body The biopsy, which is the process of taking a piece from organs such as thyroid, prostate, liver, pancreas, lung, kidney, or tumor formations outside of these organs through imaging methods such as ultrasound or tomography. The pieces are taken by placing a long needle into the desired tissue. Treatment of tumors by burning with radiofrequency or microwave energies applied to the diseased area through imaging guidance. In other words, the tumor is eliminated by burning. This method is frequently used, especially in the treatment of liver tumors. In addition to the insertion of a hemodialysis catheter in hemodialysis patients, a wide variety of procedures are performed in interventional radiology. Fistulas opened in these patients are vital for the patients. The number and type of vessels that can be opened for fistulas in these patients are relatively constant. On the other hand, each fistula has a certain lifespan. The main goal in these patients is to prolong the life of each fistula as much as possible.

Problems such as narrowing, thrombus formations, and resulting obstructions that may occur over time in these fistulas may occur. A significant portion of these problems can be solved with interventional radiological interventions. Another procedure in interventional radiology is related to the treatment of leg varicose veins. Leg veins causing varicose veins can be treated by burning with laser under ultrasound visualization. Thus, patients are saved from surgery and get rid of their problems with outpatient treatments without being hospitalized. Another important problem seen in leg veins is extensive clotting. This is called “Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)”. Although clot dissolution with blood thinners is sufficient in many cases, blood thinner drug treatment may not be sufficient in cases of intense clot formation. In this case, the clot needs to be cleaned with intervention. Complete removal of the clot is possible with timely interventional radiological intervention.

The second major group of interventional radiological procedures is nonvascular (related to organs outside the vessel) procedures. Nonvascular interventional radiological procedures performed for diagnostic purposes are biopsy applications performed under imaging guidance. Biopsies; It is the process of taking a piece from organs such as thyroid, prostate, liver, pancreas, lung, kidney, or tumor formations outside of these organs through imaging methods such as ultrasound or tomography. The pieces are taken by placing a long needle into the desired tissue. Biopsy is performed to achieve a definitive diagnosis in many diseases, and therefore, these procedures are of great importance in guiding treatment.

Therapeutic nonvascular (related to organs outside the vessel) interventional radiological applications are very diverse depending on different anatomical regions and diseases; it includes various applications such as fluid drainage for abscess/cyst treatments, catheter interventions for kidney or bile ducts, and tumor burning procedures such as radiofrequency or microwave ablation. Diseased fluid accumulations such as abscesses or cysts can be drained and treated with special needles inserted through the skin under imaging guidance. With this method, diseases such as kidney cysts, which were once treated only by surgical methods, can be easily eliminated. Tumors can be burned and eliminated, especially in liver tumors, by delivering radiofrequency or microwave energies through an imaging-guided needle into the diseased area to create high heat, in other words, by burning the tumor. This method is frequently used, especially in the treatment of liver tumors. Moreover, it is a method that can be used in many tumors potentially.

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