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WHAT IS UROLOGY?

Urology is the branch of medicine that deals with the urinary tract diseases of both men and women (kidney, ureter, bladder, prostate, urethra) and the sexual and fertility (childbearing) diseases of men (testes, penis; infertility or sexual problems).

Biruni University Hospital provides services for all diagnostic and treatment procedures related to urological diseases with its experienced and academic staff.

The treatment of urological diseases requires the use of new and innovative technology in addition to the doctor’s knowledge and unit. In our hospital, minimally invasive urological surgeries requiring technology and experience are performed endoscopically and laparoscopically. Endoscopic treatment of prostate and stone diseases is performed using holmium laser and plasma kinetic energy.

Varicocele surgery is performed using microsurgery, which is the gold standard worldwide. Cancer surgeries are performed laparoscopically and endoscopically depending on the disease. All diagnosis (hormone tests, penile Doppler) and treatment methods (drug treatment, shock wave therapy, injection and surgery with penile prosthesis) for male sexual problems (erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation) are used.

Urological Diseases: Kidney and Urinary Tract Diseases Bladder Diseases Prostate Diseases Penis and Testicular Diseases Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Men Pediatric Urology Gynecological Urology Endoscopic Urology Impotence (Erectile Dysfunction) Infertility in Men (Sterility) Diagnosis and Treatment Methods: Kidney Stone (ESWL – URS – RIRC) – Explanatory text Bladder cancer PSA – Prostate biopsy Prostate cancer Varicocele – Explanatory text Prostate Cancer Bladder (bladder) cancer: The bladder is the organ in the lower part of our abdomen (lower abdomen) where urine accumulates. Bladder cancer occurs when the structure of the cells in the bladder wall is disrupted and abnormally proliferates. Bladder cancer is about 3 times more common in men. Smoking and chemical exposure are the main reasons.

Bladder cancer can be superficial (bladder cancer that does not enter the muscle) or can enter the muscle outside the bladder (bladder cancer that enters the muscle). Although 75% of cancers are superficial, in the group of cancers that enter the muscle, there is a possibility of the cancer spreading to other organs.

Our newborn babies; After birth, they are taken to their mothers under the supervision of our nurses in the baby observation room and are monitored for 24 hours. Our babies born in our hospital are discharged with all routine checks and tests performed by our specialist pediatricians.

In emergency cases, our pediatric patients are intervened immediately by our emergency service and Pediatric Clinic physicians in cooperation.

Symptoms of Bladder Cancer: Bladder cancer is most often noticed by bleeding in the urine. Blood in the urine can be seen with the naked eye (macroscopic) or can be seen with laboratory test results.

Other complaints:

Pain when urinating Feeling of incomplete urination Frequent urination Pieces coming out of urine Cystoscopy

Imaging methods (Ultrasonography, computed tomography) are used for the preliminary diagnosis of bladder cancer, while the gold standard method for the definitive diagnosis is cystoscopy. This procedure, which allows direct examination of the bladder through the urinary canal with a fiberoptic camera, takes about 10 minutes and the patient can go home the same day. This technique, which is based on the same principle as endoscopy and colonoscopy, can be performed painlessly with the help of sedation.

TUR Bladder / Tumor

In case of a tumoral formation/mass in the bladder, closed resection (scraping of the tumor) can be performed immediately or in another session upon the patient’s request. If the bladder cancer is limited to the organ, diagnosis, treatment, and pathological staging can be performed in a single session with the TUR method (closed method accessed from the urinary canal to the bladder). There is no incision in the body with the TUR operation, the patient is discharged the next day, and the catheter is held for 1-2 days. The patient does not feel any pain during or after the procedure and can return to routine life within 3-4 days.

Follow-up

After the initial diagnosis and treatment, oncological staging is performed with pathology and imaging methods. In cases of tumors that do not enter the muscle, intermittent cystoscopy (bladder view) is performed to monitor whether the tumor recurs. If there is a possibility of recurrence in more than 50% of bladder cancers, these patients should be followed up for at least 5 years, whether they have complaints or not. In cases of high-grade or extensive tumors, intravesical BCG drug therapy is given intermittently into the bladder.

Cystectomy (removal of the bladder)

In cases of bladder cancer that enters the muscle, the bladder needs to be removed. The surgery is performed through an approximately 15 cm incision in the abdomen and takes about 4-5 hours. The patient stays in the hospital for an average of 6-7 days. After the bladder is removed, a new urinary bladder is made from the intestine, and depending on the patient’s condition, it is connected to the patient’s abdomen (ileal conduit) or urethra (neobladder-new bladder). Patients with a new bladder (neobladder) can urinate normally after surgery. During the operation, the lymph nodes in the abdomen are also cleaned, thus, the platforms for the spread of cancer to other organs are also removed. Although conditions such as urinary incontinence, inability to urinate, and urinary tract infections may occur after surgery, it is also possible for the patient to lead a completely normal life. Depending on the stage of cancer, chemotherapy may need to be given before or after surgery.

Prostate Diseases

The prostate is a gland that surrounds the urethra, which exits the bladder and opens outward. Its function is to produce the fluid that nourishes semen. Inflammation or inflammation of the prostate manifests itself in young men as ‘Prostatitis’, pain, and difficulty urinating. In older ages, benign enlargement (BPH) and prostate cancer cases are frequently seen. It is recommended that men have a urological examination to check their prostate from the age of 40.

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